Developer Documentation

Function Naming Guidelines

Following the Julia style guidelines, functions that mutate arguments should end with !. Following the JuMP style guidelines functions beginning with an _ are intended for internal package use only (i.e. similar private scope functions). Underscores are used to separate multi-word function names and the words should typically be ordered from general to more specific, so that alphabetical sorting clusters similar functions together.

Due to model-agnostic design of PowerModels, top level functions are implicitly defined on complex numbers. Specializations of these functions yield different complex coordinates systems and real-valued model parameters.

Top level functions have the following structure,

<variable|constraint>_<component short name>_<quantity name>(_fr|_to)(_on_off)

The suffixes have the following meanings,

  • _fr: the from-side of a two-terminal component (e.g., branch or switch)
  • _to: the to-side of a two-terminal component (e.g., branch or switch)
  • _on_off: indicates that the constraint can be added or removed with a discrete 0-1 indicator variable.

Note that the from-to orientation of two-terminal components is often arbitrary and does not imply a direction of flow.

The most common values of <quantity name> are power, current and voltage. Compound names like voltage_product are also possible.

Lower level functions have the following structure,

<variable|constraint>_<component short name>_<quantity name>

The additional suffixes have the following meanings,

  • _real: the real component of a complex value in rectangular coordinates
  • _imaginary: the imaginary component of a complex value in rectangular coordinates
  • _magnitude: the magnitude of a complex value in polar coordinates
  • _angle: the angle of a complex value in polar coordinates
  • _factor: a continuous real value (usually in the range 0.0 to 1.0), that scales a complex value in equal proportions
  • _sqr: the square of a value, usually paired with _magnitude

Special Cases

In the interest of intuitive names for users, the following special cases are also acceptable,

  • The value of <component short name> can be omitted from constraint definitions for one of the canonical components that it applies to.
  • _power_real -(can be replaced with)-> _active
  • _power_imaginary -(can be replaced with)-> _reactive

Variable and Parameter Naming Guidelines


Defining power $s = p + j \cdot q$ and $sm = |s|$

  • s: complex power (VA)
  • sm: apparent power (VA)
  • p: active power (W)
  • q: reactive power (var)


Defining voltage $v = vm \angle va = vr + j \cdot vi$:

  • vm: magnitude of (complex) voltage (V)
  • va: angle of complex voltage (rad)
  • vr: real part of (complex) voltage (V)
  • vi: imaginary part of complex voltage (V)


Defining current $c = cm \angle ca = cr + j \cdot ci$:

  • cm: magnitude of (complex) current (A)
  • ca: angle of complex current (rad)
  • cr: real part of (complex) current (A)
  • ci: imaginary part of complex current (A)

Voltage products

Defining voltage product $w = v_i \cdot v_j$ then $w = wm \angle wa = wr + j\cdot wi$:

  • wm (short for vvm): magnitude of (complex) voltage products (V$^2$)
  • wa (short for vva): angle of complex voltage products (rad)
  • wr (short for vvr): real part of (complex) voltage products (V$^2$)
  • wi (short for vvi): imaginary part of complex voltage products (V$^2$)

Current products

Defining current product $cc = c_i \cdot c_j$ then $cc = ccm \angle cca = ccr + j\cdot cci$:

  • ccm: magnitude of (complex) current products (A$^2$)
  • cca: angle of complex current products (rad)
  • ccr: real part of (complex) current products (A$^2$)
  • cci: imaginary part of complex current products (A$^2$)

Transformer ratio

Defining complex transformer ratio $t = tm \angle ta = tr + j\cdot ti$:

  • tm: magnitude of (complex) transformer ratio (-)
  • ta: angle of complex transformer ratio (rad)
  • tr: real part of (complex) transformer ratio (-)
  • ti: imaginary part of complex transformer ratio (-)


Defining impedance $z = r + j\cdot x$:

  • r: resistance ($\Omega$)
  • x: reactance ($\Omega$)


Defining admittance $y = g + j\cdot b$:

  • g: conductance ($S$)
  • b: susceptance ($S$)

Standard Value Names

  • network ids:network, nw, n
  • conductors ids: conductor, cnd, c
  • phase ids: phase, ph, h

DistFlow Derivation

For an asymmetric pi section

Following notation of [1], but recognizing it derives the SOC BFM without shunts. In a pi-section, part of the total current $I_{lij}$ at the from side flows through the series impedance, $I^{s}_{lij}$, part of it flows through the from side shunt admittance $I^{sh}_{lij}$. Vice versa for the to-side. Indicated by superscripts 's' (series) and 'sh' (shunt).

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Ohm's law: } U^{mag}_{j} \angle \theta_{j} = U^{mag}_{i}\angle \theta_{i} - z^{s}_{lij} \cdot I^{s}_{lij} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{KCL at shunts: } I_{lij} = I^{s}_{lij} + I^{sh}_{lij}, I_{lji} = I^{s}_{lji} + I^{sh}_{lji} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Observing: } Observing: I^{s}_{lij} = - I^{s}_{lji}, \vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert = \vert I^{s}_{lji} \vert \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Ohm's law times its own complex conjugate: } (U^{mag}_{j})^2 = (U^{mag}_{i}\angle \theta_{i} - z^{s}_{lij} \cdot I^{s}_{lij})\cdot (U^{mag}_{i}\angle \theta_{i} - z^{s}_{lij} \cdot I^{s}_{lij})^* \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Defining: } S^{s}_{lij} = P^{s}_{lij} + j\cdot Q^{s}_{lij} = (U^{mag}_{i}\angle \theta_{i}) \cdot (I^{s}_{lij})^* \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Working it out: } (U^{mag}_{j})^2 = (U^{mag}_{i})^2 - 2 \cdot(r^{s}_{lij} \cdot P^{s}_{lij} + x^{s}_{lij} \cdot Q^{s}_{lij}) + ((r^{s}_{lij})^2 + (x^{s}_{lij})^2)\vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

Power flow balance w.r.t. branch total losses

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Active power flow: } P_{lij} + P_{lji} = g^{sh}_{lij} \cdot (U^{mag}_{i})^2 + r^{s}_{l} \cdot \vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 + g^{sh}_{lji} \cdot (U^{mag}_{j})^2 \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Reactive power flow: } Q_{lij} + Q_{lji} = -b^{sh}_{lij} \cdot (U^{mag}_{i})^2 + x^{s}_{l} \cdot \vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 - b^{sh}_{lji} \cdot (U^{mag}_{j})^2 \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Current definition: } \vert S^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 = (U^{mag}_{i})^2 \cdot \vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]


\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Voltage from: } (U^{mag}_{i})^2 \rightarrow w_{i} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Voltage to: } (U^{mag}_{j})^2 \rightarrow w_{j} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Series current: } \vert I^{s}_{lij} \vert^2 \rightarrow l^{s}_{l} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

Note that $l^{s}_{l}$ represents squared magnitude of the series current, i.e. the current flow through the series impedance in the pi-model. Power flow balance w.r.t. branch total losses

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Active power flow: } P_{lij} + P_{lji} = g^{sh}_{lij} \cdot w_{i} + r^{s}_{l} \cdot l^{s}_{l} + g^{sh}_{lji} \cdot w_{j} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Reactive power flow: } Q_{lij} + Q_{lji} = -b^{sh}_{lij} \cdot w_{i} + x^{s}_{l} \cdot l^{s}_{l} - b^{sh}_{lji} \cdot w_{j} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

Power flow balance w.r.t. branch series losses:

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Active power flow: } P^{s}_{lij} + P^{s}_{lji} = r^{s}_{l} \cdot l^{s}_{l} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Reactive power flow: } Q^{s}_{lij} + Q^{s}_{lji} = x^{s}_{l} \cdot l^{s}_{l} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

Valid equality to link $w_{i}, l_{lij}, P^{s}_{lij}, Q^{s}_{lij}$:

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Nonconvex current definition: } (P^{s}_{lij})^2 + (Q^{s}_{lij})^2 =w_{i} \cdot l_{lij} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{SOC current definition: } (P^{s}_{lij})^2 + (Q^{s}_{lij})^2 \leq w_{i} \cdot l_{lij} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

Adding an ideal transformer

Adding an ideal transformer at the from side implicitly creates an internal branch voltage, between the transformer and the pi-section.

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{New voltage: } w^{'}_{l} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Ideal voltage magnitude transformer: } w^{'}_{l} = \frac{w_{i}}{(t^{mag})^2} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

W.r.t to the pi-section only formulation, we effectively perform the following substitution in all the equations above:

\[\begin{align} & w_{i} \rightarrow \frac{w_{i}}{(t^{mag})^2} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

The branch's power balance isn't otherwise impacted by adding the ideal transformer, as such transformer is lossless.

Adding total current limits

\[\begin{align} & \mbox{Total current from: } \vert I_{lij} \vert \leq I^{rated}_{l} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Total current to: } \vert I_{lji} \vert \leq I^{rated}_{l} \nonumber \\ \end{align}\]

In squared voltage magnitude variables:

\[\begin{align*} & \mbox{Total current from: } (P_{lij})^2 + (Q_{lij})^2 \leq (I^{rated}_{l})^2 \cdot w_{i} \nonumber \\ & \mbox{Total current to: } (P_{lji})^2 + (Q_{lji})^2 \leq (I^{rated}_{l})^2 \cdot w_{j} \nonumber \\ \end{align*}\]

  • 1Gan, L., Li, N., Topcu, U., & Low, S. (2012). Branch flow model for radial networks: convex relaxation. 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 1–8. Retrieved from